How acupuncture can help
Most clinical trials to date suggest that acupuncture may be useful in the embryo transfer stage of in vitro fertilisation, and results in an increased pregnancy rate and a greater number of live births (Cheong 2008, Manheimer 2008, Kong 2009, Chen 2009, Smith 2006, Westergaard 2006), though there have been exceptions (Domar 2009) (see Table overleaf). In one recent large trial the pregnancy rate in the acupuncture group was lower than that of the control (So 2009), thus affecting the results of subsequent reviews (Cheong 2010). This trial used an inappropriately active control treatment, a sort of acupressure, thus casting doubt on the validity of the findings.
Acupuncture may help in the treatment of infertility by:
- regulating fertility hormones – stress and other factors can disrupt the function of the hypothalamic pituitary-ovarian axis (HPOA). Acupuncture promotes the release of beta-endorphin in the brain, which regulates gonadatrophin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, follicle stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland, and oestrogen and progesterone levels from the ovary (Anderson 2007).
- increasing blood flow to the reproductive organs (Ho 2009, Anderson 2007), which can improve the thickness of the endometrial lining, so increasing the chances of embryo implantation.
- increasing egg production (Jin 2009) and improving oocyte quality (Chen 2009), which could increase the chance of fertilisation.
- enhancing luteal function (Huang 2009)
- regulating follicle stimulation hormone-receptor expression (Jin 2009).
- normalising cortisol and prolactin levels on IVF medication days (Magarelli 2008); reducing stress (Anderson 2007)
- promoting embryo implantation (Liu 2008).